What is Zigbee Technology and How it Works?

What is Zigbee Technology and How it Works?

Time:2023-3-1 Author:Frank Chung
What is Zigbee Technology and How it Works?
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Smart gadgets are connected via the Zigbee wireless communication protocol, which allows them to communicate with one another. For usage in small-scale personal area networks (PANs) and internet of things (IoT) devices, it is a low-power, low-cost, and low-data-rate wireless technology. The fundamentals of Zigbee, its benefits and drawbacks, and some of its applications will be covered in this article.

What is Zigbee?

Zigbee is a wireless protocol that is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which addresses the media access control (MAC) and physical layers for low-rate wireless personal area networks. Devices can communicate with one another directly or indirectly through other devices thanks to its 2.4 GHz mesh networking architecture.

How does Zigbee work?

Devices can communicate with each other directly or indirectly through other devices because of Zigbee’s mesh networking structure. This enables scalable, adaptable networks that can avoid communication dead zones and change with the environment.

2.4 GHz frequency band radio transmissions are used by Zigbee devices for communication. In order to preserve battery life and lessen interference from other wireless devices operating in the same frequency range, the devices employ a low-power, low-data-rate protocol.

Three different types of Zigbee devices commonly make up a network: coordinators, routers, and end devices. While Zigbee routers and end devices act as messengers for the network, Zigbee coordinators are in charge of setting it up and overseeing its operation.

A device broadcasts a message to all other devices in its range when it wants to send one to another in the network. The message will be received and processed appropriately if the target device is in range. The message will be sent through additional network nodes until it reaches the destination device if the destination device is out of range.

In order to regulate communication between devices and offer security, Zigbee also makes use of a network layer. Features like encryption and authentication are included in the network layer to safeguard against unauthorized access and guarantee the integrity of the data being delivered.

Benefits of Zigbee Technology

The use of Zigbee for wireless communication has various advantages:

Reduced Power Consumption

To extend the battery life of devices, Zigbee uses a low-power, low-data-rate protocol. It is therefore the best choice for battery-powered gadgets that must function for long periods of time.

Simple Installation

Many Zigbee devices have plug-and-play capabilities, making it simple to install and configure these devices. As a result, expanding a network as necessary and adding new devices to an existing one is simple.

Trustable Communication

Zigbee employs a mesh networking structure, which offers numerous channels for communication between devices. As a result, the network is more dependable and less likely to experience communication dead spots.

Safe Communication

Zigbee comes with built-in security tools including encryption and authentication, which serve to guard against unauthorized access and guarantee the accuracy of data being communicated.


Zigbee devices are made to be interoperable, which enables them to talk to one other even though they come from various manufacturers. This gives network device selection greater flexibility and choice.


In comparison to other wireless communication protocols, Zigbee devices are comparatively cheap. For small-scale personal area networks and internet of things devices, this makes it a viable choice.


By connecting new devices to the network, Zigbee networks can readily grow. As a result, networks can be made adaptable and scalable to accommodate changing circumstances and demands.

Applications of Zigbee

Many applications for Zigbee exist, such as:

  • Home Automation: In a home, zigbee is used to control systems like the heating, lighting, and security. In order to communicate with one another and a central hub, Zigbee is commonly used by smart home appliances including smart thermostats, door locks, and security cameras.
  • Industrial Automation: Industrial Automation: Zigbee is utilized in factories and other industrial settings for monitoring and control. It is utilized to link devices like as sensors, actuators, and others to a centralized control system.
  • Healthcare: Zigbee is used in hospitals and other healthcare facilities to track medical equipment and monitor patients. Smart watches and fitness trackers are two examples of wearable health technology that employ it.
  • Smart Grid: Home energy management systems, smart meters, and other devices are connected to the power grid using Zigbee in smart grid applications. This enables more effective energy utilization and improved grid management.
  • Asset Tracking: Zigbee is utilized for asset tracking across a range of sectors, including agriculture, retail, and logistics. It allows for the instantaneous tracking of the whereabouts and state of items, equipment, and other assets.
  • Building Automation: Lighting, HVAC, and other building systems are automated and controlled using Zigbee in commercial buildings. In addition to improving energy efficiency, it can reduce maintenance costs.
  • Environmental Monitoring: Zigbee is a wireless technology that can be used for a variety of environmental monitoring tasks, such as keeping an eye on the weather, the water supply, and the air quality. It can be used to compile sensor data and deliver it to a centralized monitoring system.

Limitations of zigbee

Zigbee provides a number of advantages, but there are some drawbacks to take into account as well:

  • Restricted Range: Depending on the surroundings and any obstructions, the range of a Zigbee device is normally between 10 and 100 meters. For applications that call for long-distance communication, this could be a restriction.
  • Interference: Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are two more wireless communication systems that use the same 2.4 GHz frequency band as Zigbee. In some settings, this might lead to interference and reduce the dependability of communication.
  • Limited Bandwidth:  Zigbee has limited Bandwidth because it is a low-data-rate protocol, making it inefficient for sending large volumes of data. For applications that demand high-bandwidth communication, this could be a restriction.
  • Network Size: Up to 65,000 devices can be supported by a Zigbee network, which might not be enough for bigger networks.
  • Latency: There could be latency or communication delays with Zigbee networks, especially in bigger networks with lots of devices.
  • Compatibility: Zigbee is intended to be compatible, although using products from multiple vendors may still cause problems.

Disadvantages of Zigbee

Its restricted range is one of Zigbee’s biggest drawbacks. It has a short range of a few hundred feet and is intended for use in small networks. It is therefore unsuited for applications that require long-distance communication.

Additionally, Zigbee’s restricted bandwidth renders it unsuitable for applications that require rapid data transfer. Because of its mesh architecture, it might have significant latency, making real-time applications inappropriate for it.


A wireless protocol called Zigbee was created for low-power, low-cost, and low-data-rate applications. It is extensively utilized in small-scale personal area networks and internet of things (IoT) devices (PANs). It has a number of benefits, such low power consumption and simple installation, but it also has some drawbacks, like a small range and bandwidth. Zigbee is a popular option for a variety of applications despite these drawbacks, and its use is anticipated to increase in the future.

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